Multi-National Work-Family Research Project
(Project 3535)

Resource and Research Archive

Presentations and Publications of the Multi-National Work-Family Research
Project (Project 3535).

Index of All Listings by Research Category


WF Cross Cultural
How Far is Too Far?: Comparing Spain, Taiwan, India, US & Canada on Work- Family Conflict

18th Congress of the International Association for Cross-Cultural Psychology, Spetes, Greece.

Published: 2006
Author(s): Steven Poelmans, Roya Ayman, Karen Korabik, Ujvala Rajadhyaksha, Ting-Pang Huang, Donna Lero, Tripti Pande Desai,

Including the Social-Cultural and Policy Contexts in our Multi-level, Multi-National Study of Work-Family Conflict

Report to the International W-F Workshop. Guelph, ON.

Published: 2008, October
Author(s): D onna S. Lero, Anne Bardoel

Similarities and differences in the work-family interface across ten countries

Work-Family Researcher Network Conference, New York, NY.

Published: 2014, June
Author(s): Karen Korabik, Donna S. Lero, Anne Bardoel &, Leslie B. Hammer

Socio-Cultural and Public Policy Contexts as Factors Affecting Work-Family Conflict: A Cross-National Analysis

International Association of cross-Cultural Psychology, Istanbul, Turkey

 Considerations of how to support women’s human capital development, employment, and gender equality figure prominently in policy discussions as factors critical for economic and social development. Project 3535 was uniquely constructed to enable comparisons across countries that vary in the extent to which culture and institutional policies and programs support women’s employment opportunities and work-family integration. In this presentation we provide information obtained from government sources and NGOs, including rankings from the UN Gender Development and Gender Empowerment Indices, labour force statistics, and data on social policies and programs including maternity and parental leave, child care, and other supports that illustrates important differences between countries in the 3535 study.  In addition we provide examples of how such data can be incorporated in analyses of this large data set, including the extent to which use of, and satisfaction with government and workplace policies affect work-life conflict and role satisfaction.   

Published: 2011, July
Author(s): Donna S. Lero, Anne Bardoel, Karen Korabik, Tricia van Rhijn

Testing a Model of the Antecedents and Outcomes of Work-Family Conflict in a Multinational Context

International Association for Cross-Cultural Psychology, Istanbul, Turkey

We tested a structural equation model of the antecedents and outcomes associated with work-family conflict using data from the ten countries that participated in Project 3535. We first established that all of our measures were invariant for culture. Our results demonstrated that the model fit the data well for all ten countries. Greater supervisor support predicted lower conflict due to work interference with family (WIF). Higher work overload was related to higher WIF and higher turnover intentions, whereas higher family overload predicted greater conflict due to family interference with work (FIW) and lower family satisfaction. Higher WIF predicted lower family satisfaction, whereas higher FIW predicted higher turnover intentions. Family satisfaction was positively related and turnover intent negatively related to life satisfaction. These results indicate that findings from North America can be generalized to a multinational context.

Published: 2011, July
Author(s): Karen Korabik, Zeynep Aycan

The Impact of Gender and Culture on the Work-Family Interface.

In M. Mills (Ed). Gender and the work-family experience: An intersection of two domains. Springer.

Published: forthcoming
Author(s): Ujvala Rajadhyaksha, Karen Korabik &, Zeynep Aycan

The Impact of Social Support on the Work-Family Interface: A Cross-National Analysis

International Association f cross-Cultural Psychology, Istanbul, Turkey

 This study investigated the influence of social support on the work-family (W-F) interface in a multi-national context.  Much research has demonstrated that social support from both work and nonwork sources alleviates W-F conflict (see Ayman & Antani, 2008 for a review).  However, almost no prior research has examined the relationship of social support to W-F facilitation or to other aspects of the W-F interface.  In addition, it is unusual for a number of different sources of support to be considered within the same study. Furthermore, few cross national comparisons exist in this area. In the present study we addressed these issues using the data from Project 3535.  We looked at the differential impact of satisfaction with various sources of social support (e.g., supervisor, coworker, family and friends, and organizational and government policies) on different aspects of the W-F interface. Implications of the results for individuals and organizations will be discussed.

Published: 2011, july
Author(s): Li Zhang, Yuchuan Lin, Roya Ayman, & Karen Korabik

The intersection of gender and work-family guilt.

In M. Mills (Ed). Gender and the work-family experience: An intersection of two domains. Springer

Published: forthcoming
Author(s): Karen Korabik

Theory and method for studying work-family conflict in a multi-national context.

18th International Congress of Cross-Cultural Psychology. Spetes, Greece.

Published: July, 2006
Author(s): Donna S. Lero, Roya Ayman, Zeynep Aycan, Anat Drach-Zahay, Arti Mawardi, Steven Poelmans, Tripti Pande Desai, Ting-Panf Huang, Ujvala Rajadhyaksha, Anit Somech, Karen Korabik, Leslie B. Hammer & Anne Bardoel

Work-family conflict from a cross-cultural perspective.

Invited presentation to the Arab women's leadership forum

Published: 2010, January
Author(s): Zeynep Aycan