Multi-National Work-Family Research Project
(Project 3535)

This research consisted of three components:

1) a qualitative analysis of focus group discussions

2) a quantitative survey, and

3) a social policy analysis

This research was based on the extension of a comprehensive, theoretical model (Frone, Yardley, & Markle, 1997) that included a large number of antecedents and outcomes in the work, family, and well-being domains, as well as important socio-cultural and moderating variables. It employed multiple methodologies, both qualitative and quantitative (Greenhaus & Parasuraman, 1999) and both emic (culture specific) and etic (pancultural) (Gelfand, Raver, & Erhart, 2002). Moreover, it utilized both micro- and macro-level approaches. It also made use of a multicultural and interdisciplinary team of international researchers so as to assure a deep understanding of the issues being studied and how they apply in different cultural contexts (Ayman, 1994; Gelfand et al., 2002). Furthermore, these expert researchers represented a wide number of cultures, selected based on theoretically important dimensions (Gelfand et al., 2002). Lastly, we tried to respond to Greenhaus and Parasuraman's (1999) call for more studies of W-F balance that use short-term longitudinal approaches and that examine gender differences and to Frone's (2002) desire that more emphasis be placed on the role of positive spillover, personal coping initiatives, and organizational W-F policies. Please refer to Korabik, Lero and Ayman (2003) for a more extensive discussion of the general methodology.